The term soundscape popularised by Canadian composer and researcher R. Murray Schafer represents the collection of all acoustic events occurring in a particular space. According to Schafer, the term soundscape derived from „landscape” represents the sonic components that shape the auditory landscape, including their historical, cultural, and geographic context. The concept was formalised in this book The Tuning of the World in 1979, where he defines acoustic ecology as a field studying the relationship that sound builds between humans and their environment. Schafer described our sound environment as a musical composition and, furthermore, claimed that we as humans are responsible for its shape and condition.
Bernie Krause, a soundscape ecologist, introduced terms into the field of acoustic ecology to define three separate sound sources in the soundscape: geophony (non-biological natural sounds such as the effect of wind in trees or grasses, waves at the ocean, or movement of the earth), biophony (sounds produced by living organisms), and anthropophony (human-generated acoustic signatures such as language or music, but also sounds produced by human-developed technology).